Abstract

Several physicists independently discovered
the transactional laws of microphysics, as this discovery was
unavoidable for 1930. The most known of us is John G. Cramer. It seems
that all of us are heirs of the absorber theory of the electron, by
Wheeler and Feynman in 1945, and of P.A.M. Dirac for his 1938 paper: *Classical Theory of Radiating Electrons*.
But none of them made explicit the postulates they choose, nor the
implicit ones they discard. Here are listed eighteen surreptitious
postulates we reject, opposed to the ten postulates founding the
transactional microphysics.

Plusieurs physiciens ont indépendamment
découvert les lois de la microphysique transactionnelle : une
découverte inéluctable depuis 1930. Le plus connu de tous est John
G.Cramer. Il semble que tous nous sommes héritiers de la théorie de
l'électron absorbeur, par Wheeler et Feynman en 1945, et de Dirac par
sa théorie de l'électron radiant en 1938. Mais aucun n'avait encore
explicité les postulats implicites que nous rejetons, ni les postulats
que nous adoptons. Ici sont listés les dix-huit postulats que nous
rejetons, et les dix qui fondent la microphysique transactionnelle.

But the properties of the absorbers exist; some of these properties are quantic.

The unit of phase or
angle comes back in the dimensional monomial. The Maupertuisian action
is not action-per-unit-of-phase, and Planck's constant is
action-per-unit-of-phase: **h** = 6.6260755 . 10^{-34} joule.second/cycle = **ħ** = 1.05457266 . 10^{-34} joule.second/radian.

As soon as a “*particle*” has an intrinsic mass, its intrinsic frequencies **mc²/h** and **2mc²/h** play each one their role. The Broglian **mc²/h** for each interference of a quantic entity with itself. The Dirac-Schrödinger **2mc²/h** for all electromagnetic interactions, such as the Compton scattering.

All the real journeys
come in phase, eventually at an integer number of periods. Hence the
geometry of the Fermat’s spindle between emitter and absorber. Out of
the Fermat spindle(s), the transmitted power is null, for each photon
or any other “*particle*”.

In the case of an interference experiment, like the Aharonov-Bohm experiment, with two separate Fermat's paths:

A photon is a successful **transaction**
between three partners: an emitter, an absorber, and the space or
optical devices between them. This transaction transfers by
electromagnetic means, a quantum of looping **h**, and an
energy-momentum that depends on the respective frames of the emitter
and the absorber, and of their recoils. In the case where the boundary
conditions are quantic (when at least one of the ends, the emitter or
the absorber beats from an initial stationary state to a final
stationary state), the transferred momentum is **hν/c** in the frame where the frequency **ν** is considered.

One cannot quantize the
acceleration of an electron in a magnetic or an electric field. So the
acceleration of an electron in a vacuum tube, in a cathodic ray tube or
in an electronic microscope, or in a particle accelerator, the
synchrotron radiation, the *Bremsstrahlung* (braking radiation) all that escape to the quantic sub-domain: no stationary states with defined frequencies before and after.

We distinguish between:

1 – Waves in a
collectivity (of atoms or molecules). So are the gravity waves between
two fluids, and acoustic waves, seismic too. And in microphysics, the
spin waves in a ferromagnetic material, the phonons, the plasmons, and
polaritons.

2 – The collectives of
waves, such as light, or a beam of electrons, ions or neutrons. These
collectives comprise many individual emitters and many more potential
absorbers.

3 – The individual waves, for each quantic “*particle*”,
photon or neutrino for instance. In the quantic sub-domain, each one of
these individual waves converges onto one individual absorber.

The god of Isaac
Newton, in charge of all seeing simultaneously, does not exist. The
time of Isaac Newton, a supposed universal and ubiquitous parameter,
does not exist either. We distinguish the macro-time of macro-systems
such as the laboratory, from the micro-times where dwell all the
gropings of broglian waves from which emerge the successful
transactions. The macro-time is a statistical emergence, and it flows
the same way as the entropy, a statistical emergence too. It has no
causal power in microphysics. No nucleus ages.

For the 17^{th}
century, it is known that in our low gravity, far from a Schwarzschild
horizon, every real optical path is reversible. In 1859, Gustav
Kirchhoff has proved that the Fraunhofer dark spectral lines from a
cold gas or vapor correspond to bright spectral lines of the same
elements in a hotter gas. So the spectral emission of a photon is
exactly the same physical phenomenon as the absorption. Generalization:
the retrosymmetry applies to the low energies of all the atomic
physics, the molecular spectroscopy, and all the solid state physics.

No, it is impossible to
isolate a quantic system as we isolate its equations at the blackboard:
No mean exist to shield the Dirac-de-Broglie noise. It is impossible to
predict which transaction will emerge, nor when. Only the admittances
may be computed and predicted. The implied de Broglie frequencies are
inaccessible from our human scale, and the theorem of the requisite
variety, from William Ross Ashby, is here to ruin all our fantasies of
panoptical omniscience. Moreover, the innumerable involved micro-times
are bi-directional: orthochronous and retrochronous.

When a theory is, at last, correct, it does not have exceptions.

Many experimental
results embarrass the hegemonic Göttingen-copenhaguists: All the
spectral absorptions (they are frequential, while their theory is
anti-frequential), all the interferences such as all the
radio-crystallography, the anti-reflective coatings, the quarter-wave
plates, the interferential colors, the Goos-Hänchen effect in plane
polarization, Imbert-Fedorov in circular polarization, all proofs of
the non-negligible width and notable length of each photon. A very long
list! They hid from you the transparency effect Ramsauer-Townsend
(1921), which is strictly undulatory. As an electron is strictly
undulatory, no more means to impress the naive public, by the mystic “*wave-corpuscle dualism*”.
Many other everyday experimental results are incompatible with the
corpuscular ideation of the Göttingen-Københavnists, for instance the
whole radiocrystallography, the whole interferential astronomy, so on.

For them, the time
remains the Isaac Newton’s one, where his god could simultaneously see
all. According to the formalism they teach, their time is a universal
and ubiquitous parameter. However, any photon violates their postulate,
as its proper time is null. The creation and annihilation reactions are
simultaneous in the photon’s time. However, its coherence length and
duration are not null: interferences exist!

Or anti-optical
postulate, as any quantitative law of optics is incompatible with the
corpuscularist ideation. All the spectrography, the interferences
(photonic, electronic, or neutronic), the radiocrystallography, the
antennas and their directivity, the anti-reflective coatings, the
interferential colors, the quarter-wave plates, the Ramsauer-Townsend
transparency effect, many fine effects in polarized light, all these
facts are incompatible with the myths of the corpuscularism. For an
erroneous half-sentence by Albert Einstein in 1905, they were all
convinced that the resurrection by Einstein of the Newtonian corpuscle,
was right. However, this concept is internal to macrophysics, very far
from the atomic limit, and never any extrapolation to microphysics has
been validated by any experiment.

The obligation to
negate any frequential phenomenon, except those electromagnetic and
massless. Negate the intrinsic frequencies of any particles with mass
(spinorial frequency of Louis de Broglie **mc²/h**, and electromagnetic frequency of Dirac-Schrödinger, **2mc²/h**). Negate the two retrochonous components of the electron wave, brought by Dirac equation in 1928. Negate the *Zitterbewegung*. Hide the Ramsauer-Townsend transparency, 1921, because it proves that the electron IS its broglian wave.

The copenhaguists
postulate auto-similitude of time and space at any scale, with
unlimited extrapolations. Furthermore, they extrapolate to microphysics
the statistical irreversibility of the macroscopic time, and the
topology with unlimited fineness, inherited from the mathematicians of
the 19^{th} century, up to under the atomic limit where it is no more valid at all.

Postulate that you always can find a smaller something, enabling you to assert that something, says an electron, is “*small*”, corpuscular, even “*punctual*”. Bad luck: this smaller something does not exist.

“*There are no absorbers in microphysics. Only artillery of corpuscles, exactly as in macrophysics*”.

Systematically put a macroscopic “*observer*”
- a big animal with slow perceptions - in the middle of the picture, to
rule the microphysical realities, instead of analyzing which may be the
proper size of mesh for analysis, they deny realities, and set above
all the territorial comfort of the leaders.

“*The physical laws are made for the satisfaction of the copenhaguist physicist, to furnish him information*”.
If the copenhaguist physicist can not more know for sure the position
of the submarine, then the submarine is in a superposed state between
three miles further north and three miles further south (and west and
east). Banesh Hoffmann *scribit*... Daring to distinguish the
microphysical realities from the knowledge we have on them, is said to
be a heresy and relapse crime. We came about fifteen milliards years
too late to dictate that the physical laws should be made for us, but
they do not even notice this discrepancy.

As the properties of
the Fourier transform were established one century earlier, and as
Joseph Fourier was a frenchman, and considering the emotional feelings
in Germany against France in 1925, Werner Heisenberg was perfectly
right to relabel these properties into “*Principle of Cruel Uncertainty* of the Immortal Prophet”. Only a conspiracy of nature could hide from Heisenberg the exact position of the supposed *corpuscle*…

“*Me, Myself and I,
as a big macrophysical animal, self-claimed as “the observer”, I am so
almighty that I have the power to delay forever the absorption
reactions and the consecutive decoherence, just by not observing!*”

In opposition, Erwin Schrödinger published in 1935 the humorous apologue of the*dead-alive* cat, remaining in the *dead-alive* *superposed state*
as long as a copenhaguist physicist does not lean his august attention
on the results of the experience. Overtly, Schrödinger mocked the
animist postulate that the Göttingen-copenhaguists admitted; but they
remain so arrogant, that eighty-three years later they still do not
perceive the sarcasm.

All the marketing hype promising marvelous “*quantic computers*” is founded on the Wigner-Neumann animist postulate.

In opposition, Erwin Schrödinger published in 1935 the humorous apologue of the

All the marketing hype promising marvelous “

As we can only write a
limited system, and as anyway, we are impatient to alleviate already
heavy formulas, therefore a quantic system is naturally delimited,
naturally separated and independent of the remaining of the world.
Alas, this postulate is heavily wrong.

Or if you prefer:
goblinic and poltergeist: postulate that each quantum particle
(electron, photon, neutron, proton…) is individually exempted from any
physical law, but magically, in great numbers, its statistic rejoins
some statistical physical laws, just as this collectivity blurs the
corpuscular properties they were postulated to have. Never the
copenhaguists detail the physical miracle by which the individual
no-laws is transmuted into a collective law.

Though the chemists use
it with success, the copenhaguists postulate that any wave under the
Schrödinger equation must be fictitious, without any physical meaning,
and its only use is to be elevated at hermitian square to obtain the
probability of apparition of the magical and supernatural corpuscle.
This goblinic and poltergeist corpuscle is allowed to explore “*beyond the planet Jupiter*”
during its travel from the electrons cannon to the cathodic screen or
the microchip to engrave. Feynman and Hawking have written
it, so it must be true...

To deny the atomic
limit in undulatory, prescribe to confuse all kind of “waves”, each
individual wave (quantic wave) with any collective of waves, and these
collectives with gravity waves or elastic waves in a collectivity of
matter, then mathematically unify all these kinds: the individual waves
(quantic ones), the collective, and the collectivity waves. The
Born-Heisenberg copenhaguism is founded on this trick, and it is so for
ninety-one years. A hegemonic swindle. Tip: an individual wave has only
one emitter and only one absorber, and usually at least one is on the
microphysical scale.

Hide from the students that among the four components of the wave equation of the electron, two of them are retrochronous.

In each controversy,
agglomerate the formalism and the Göttingen-København semantics, and
teach they may not be separated. Then you deny any meaning to the word
“semantics”.

Only “*states*”
exist, please forget the transitions. Because the durations and the
properties of the transitions, such as the length of coherence of
photons, proved by interferences by Thomas Young in 1801, are not
compatible with the corpuscularist postulate.

The simplified
approximation of the geometry of the Fermat spindles should be
improved. However, the approximation by constant curvature works not so
bad in far fields, as seen in astronomical optics. For instance we can
predict a relation between the minimum drop of rain, and the distance
from the eye or camera to still observe a rainbow, by the half-angle of
the tangent cone (or *Fermat angle*): $\alpha $ = $\sqrt{\frac{3\lambda}{4a}}$ where where **λ** is the wavelength, and **a** is half the distance between the emitter and the absorber, in the vacuum.

Owing to the geometry
of the Fermat’s spindle, we have dimensioned the pretended experiment
which is pretended to validate the contrafactuality of Elitzur and
Vaidman. It has been proved that the “*quaking mirror*” that
could reveal the corpuscle-photon, will be anyway too heavy by seven or
eight magnitudes.
http://www.agoravox.fr/culture-loisirs/culture/article/contrafactualite-penrose-elitzur-155565
(2014).

In other domains of
astronomy, even interferential, and of physical optics, and fine
polarization effects, we have not yet brought new results, only proved
that our theoretical results are fully coherent with all known
experimental facts – including those many which are carefully hidden
from the students in quantics. For instance in radiocrystallography, or
in physical methods of analytical chemistry, or in solid state physics.

Everyday experiments
like the convergence of any photon on the cis-retinal in our opsins in
the retina in spite of defects of vergence prove that the transaction
of the photon, emitter-optical_space-absorber, adapts the angles of
arriving at the cornea, to obtain the convergence entirely on an opsin.
Anyone can verify: adding defects of vergence, such as astigmatism,
does not affect the perception of the colors, nor the illumination. So
is the transactional retrosymmetry.
https://www.agoravox.fr/culture-loisirs/culture/article/une-preuve-definitive-par-l-205808
(2018).

Augustin Fresnel (1815). *Premier mémoire sur la diffraction de la lumière.*

http://www.bibnum.education.fr/physique/optique/premier-memoire-sur-la-diffraction-de-la-lumiere

Augustin Fresnel (1819). *Mémoire sur la diffraction de la lumière*. Primé par l'Académie des Sciences. Mém. Acad. Sci. 5 (1821-1822).

Gustav Kirchhoff (1859) "*Ueber die Fraunhofer'schen Linien*"
(On Fraunhofer's lines), Monatsbericht der Königlichen Preussische
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Monthly report of the Royal
Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin), 662–665.

Gustav Kirchhoff (1859) "*Ueber das Sonnenspektrum*"
(On the sun's spectrum), Verhandlungen des
naturhistorisch-medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg (Proceedings of the
Natural History / Medical Association in Heidelberg), 1 (7) : 251–255.

James Clerk Maxwell (1873). *A treatise on electricity and magnetism*. Reprinted by Dover.

Laue, Max von (1913). "*Röntgenstrahlinterferenzen*". Physikalische Zeitschrift. 14 (22/23): 1075–1079.

William Henry Bragg, William Lawrence Bragg, "*X Rays and Crystal Structure*", G. Bell & Son, London, 1915.

Einstein, Albert* (1916). Strahlungs-Emission und Absorption nach der Quantentheorie.* Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. 18: 318–323. Bibcode:1916DPhyG..18..318E

Einstein, Albert (1916,
1917). Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Theory of
Radiation) Mitteilungen der Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Zürich, 16,
47–62.

P. Scherrer (1918), *“Bestimmung der Grösse und der inneren Struktur von Kolloidteilchen mittels Röntgenstrahlen*,” Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 26 (1918) pp 98–100.

Carl Ramsauer (1921). *Über den Wirkungsquerschnitt der Gasmoleküle gegenüber langsamen Elektronen*. Annalen der Physik, vol 369, n° 6,1921 p. 513-540. (DOI 10.1002/andp.19213690603)

J.S. Townsend and V.A. Bailey (1921). *The motion of electrons in gases*. Philosophical Magazine, vol S.6. n° 42, 1921, p. 873-891.

de Broglie, Louis (1924). *Recherches sur la théorie des Quanta*.

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00006807/document

Schrödinger, Erwin (1926). *An Undulatory Theory of the Mechanics of Atoms and Molecules*. Physical Review 28 (1926), 1049-70, on p. 1070.

Dirac, P.A.M. (1928)*. The quantum theory of the electron*. 01 February 1928.

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspa.1928.0023

Schrödinger, Erwin (1930). *Über die Kräftefreie Bewegung in der relativischen Quantenmechanik*. Siztung der phys.-math. Klasse von 31, Juli 1930. - Mitteilung vom 17,Juli.

Dirac, P.A.M. (1933). Nobel lecture.

Dirac, P.A.M. (1938). *Classical theory of the radiating electron.*

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/167/929/148.full.pdf+html?sid=6beab19c-67b9-4307-a637-1975aeb64ebf

Wheeler, John Archibald, Feynman, Richard Philips (1941, 1945). *Interaction with the Absorber as the Mechanism of Radiation*. Reviews of Modern Physics. Volume 17, number 2 and 3, April-July 1945.

https://authors.library.caltech.edu/11095/1/WHErmp45.pdf

Henderson, Giles, Rittenhouse, Robert C., Wright, John C., Holmes, Jon L. (1979). *How a Photon Is Created or Absorbed*. Journal of Chemical Education :

http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Articles/DynaPub/DynaPub.html

Craig F. Bohren, "*How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?*", Am J Phys, 51 #4, pp323 Apr 1983.

H. Paul and R. Fisher (1983). *Light absorption by a dipole*. Sov. Phys. Usp. 26 (10), Nauk 141, 375-381Oct 1983.

M. Gouanère, M. Spighel, N. Cue, M.J. Gaillard, R. Genre, R. Kirsch, J.C. Poizat, J. Remillieux, P. Catillon, L. Roussel.* Experimental observation compatible with the particle internal clock*.

http://aflb.ensmp.fr/AFLB-331/aflb331m625.pdf

Shahriar S. Afshar (2001, 2003). Vi*olation of Bohr's complementarity: one slit or both?* AIP Conference Proceedings, 2006 v. 810, 294–299.

John G. Cramer (2006), “*A Transactional Analysis of Interaction Free Measurements*”, Foundations of Physics Letters 19, 63-73 (2006); arXiv:quant-ph/0508102.

John G. Cramer. *The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Nonlocality*.

http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1503.00039

Complete handbook for popularization, where the complete external references are developed.

In french: **Microphysique quantique transactionnelle, Principes et applications**.

http://www.lulu.com/shop/jacques-lavau/microphysique-quantique-transactionnelle-principes-et-applications/paperback/product-23362834.html

In english: **Transactional Quantum Microphysics, Principles and Applications**.

http://www.lulu.com/shop/jacques-lavau/transactional-quantum-microphysics-principles-and-applications/paperback/product-23656620.html

to William Beaty, the
webmaster of amasci.com (amateur science). Only by amasci.com, I was
warned to be anteriorized by C. F. Bohren in 1983, H. Paul and R.
Fischer in 1983, Giles Henderson, Robert C. Rittenhouse, John C. Wright
and Jon L. Holmes in 1979, and by John G. Cramer in 1986.